Semantic Cognition: A Parallel Distributed Processing Approach
This groundbreaking monograph offers a mechanistic theory of the representation and use of semantic knowledge, integrating the strengths and overcoming many of the weaknesses of hierarchical, categorization-based approaches, similarity-based approaches, and the approach often called “theory theory.” Building on earlier models by Geoffrey Hinton in the 1980s and David Rumelhart in the early 1990s, the authors propose that performance in semantic tasks arises through the propagation of graded signals in a system of interconnected processing units. The representations used in performing these tasks are patterns of activation across units, governed by weighted connections among them. Semantic knowledge is acquired through the gradual adjustment of the strengths of these connections in the course of day-to-day experience.
The authors show how a simple computational model proposed by Rumelhart exhibits a progressive differentiation of conceptual knowledge, paralleling aspects of cognitive development seen in the work of Frank Keil and Jean Mandler. The authors extend the model to address aspects of conceptual knowledge acquisition in infancy, disintegration of conceptual knowledge in dementia, “basic-level” effects and their interaction with expertise, and many findings introduced to support the idea that semantic cognition is guided by naive, domain-specific theories. Overview from MIT Press
Rogers, T. T., and J. L. McClelland (2004). Semantic Cognition: A Parallel Distributed Processing Approach. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Kalish, C. W., Rogers, T. T., Lang, J. and Zhu, X. (2011). Can semi-supervised learning explain incorrect beliefs about categories? Cognition, 120, 106-118.
Stilp, C. E., Rogers, T. T., & Kluender, K. (2010). Rapid efficient encoding of correlated complex acoustic properties. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(50), 21914-21919.
Rogers, T. T., Kalish, C., Gibson, B. R., Harrison, J. and Zhu, X. (2010). Semi-supervised learning is observed in a speeded but not an unspeeded 2D categorization task. Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society.
Zhu, X., Gibson, B. R., Jun, K., Rogers, T. T., Harrison, J., and Kalish, C. (2010). Cognitive models of test-item effects in human category learning. International Conference on Machine Learning 2010.
Gibson, B., Zhu, X., Rogers, T. T., Kalish, C. and Harrison, J. (2010). Humans learn using manifolds, reluctantly. Advances in Neural Information Processing (NIPS) 2010.
McClelland, J. L., Botvinick, M. B., Noelle, D., Rogers, T. T., Seidenberg, M., and Smith, L. (2010). Letting structure emerge: connectionist and dynamic systems approaches to cognition, Trends in Cognitive Science, 14, 348-356.
Barense, M. D., Rogers, T. T., Bussey, T. J., Saksida, L. & Graham, K. S. (2010) Influence of conceptual knowledge on visual object discrimination: Insights from semantic dementia and MTL amnesia. Cerebral Cortex, advanced access published online Feb 2010.
Jefferies, E., Rogers, T. T., Hopper, S., & Lambon Ralph, M. A. (2010). “Pre-semantic” cognition revisited: Critical differences between semantic aphasia and semantic dementia. Neuropsychologia, 48(1), 248-261.
Hornberger, M., Bell, B., Graham, K. S., & Rogers, T. T. (2009). Are judgments of semantic relatedness systematically impaired in Alzheimer’s disease? Neuropsychologia, 47, 3084-3094.
Rogers, T. T., & McClelland, J. L. (2008). A simple model from a powerful framework that spans levels of analysis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 31, 729-749.
Castro, R., Kalish, C., Nowak, R., Qian, R., Rogers, T. T., & Zhu, X. (2008). Human active learning. Advances in Neural Information Processing (NIPS) 2008. Rogers’s effort: 25%
Sahni, S., & Rogers, T. T. (2008). Sound versus meaning: What matters most in early word learning? Proceedings of the IEEE 7th International Conference on Development and Learning.
Zhu, X., Rogers, T. T., Qian, R., & Kalish, C. (2007). Humans perform semi-supervised classification too. Proceedings of the Twenty-Second AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence.
Patterson, K., Nestor, P. and Rogers, T. T. (2007). Where do you know what you know? The representation of semantic knowledge in the human brain. Nature Reviews: Neuroscience.
Hauk, O., Patterson, K., Woollams, A., Pye, E., Pulvermuller, F. and Rogers, T. T. (2007). How the camel lost its hump: The impact of object typicality on ERP signals in object decision. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 19(8), 1338-1353 .
Lambon Ralph, M. A., Lowe, C., and Rogers, T. T. (2007). The neural basis of category-specific semantic deficits for living things: Evidence from semantic dementia, HSVE and a neural network model. Brain, 130, 1127-1137.
Rogers, T. T. , Hocking, J., Noppeney, U., Mechelli, A., Gorno-Tempini, M., Patterson, K. and Price, C. (2006). The anterior temporal cortex and semantic memory: Reconciling findings from neuropsychology and functional imaging. Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience, 6(3), 201-213.
Adlam, A.-L., Patterson, K., Rogers, T. T., Salmond, C. H. and Hodges, J. R. (2006). Semantic dementia and primary progressive aphasia: Two sides of the same coin? Brain, 129, 3066-3080.
Hauk, O., Patterson, K., Woollams, A., Pulvermuller, F., Watling, L. and Rogers, T. T. (2006). [Q:] When would you prefer a SOSSAGE to a SAUSAGE? [A:] At about 100 ms. ERP correlates of orthographic typicality and lexicality in written word recognition. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18(5), 818-832.
Patterson, K., Lambon Ralph, M. A., Jefferies, E., Woollams, A., Jones, R., Hodges, J. R. and Rogers, T. T. (2006). ‘Pre-semantic’ cognition in semantic dementia: Six deficits in search of an explanation. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18(2), 169-183.
Rogers, T. T. , Ivanoiu, A. , Patterson, K., and Hodges, J. R. (2006). Semantic memory in Alzheimer’s disease and the fronto-temporal dementias: A longitudinal study of 236 patients. Neuropsychology, 20(3), 319-335.
Rogers, T. T. , Hocking, J., Mechelli, A., Patterson, K. and Price, C. (2005). Fusiform activation to animals is driven by the process, not the stimulus. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 17(3), 434-445.
Barense, M. D., Bussey, T. J., Lee, A. C. H., Rogers, T. T., Davies, R. R., Saksida, L. M., Murray, E. A. and Graham, K. (2005). Functional specialization in the human medial temporal lobe. Journal of Neuroscience, 25(44), 10239-10246.
Bak, T. H., Rogers, T. T., Crawford, L. M., Hearn, V. C., Mathuranath, P. S., and Hodges, J. R. (2005). Different patterns of cognitive impairment in atypical parkinsonian syndromes. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 76, 420-422.
Rogers , T. T. , Lambon Ralph, M. A, Garrard, P., Bozeat, S., McClelland, J. L., Hodges, J. R., and Patterson, K. (2004). The structure and deterioration of semantic memory: A neuropsychological and computational investigation. Psychological Review, 111(1), 205-235.
Rogers, T. T. , Lambon Ralph, M. A., Hodges, J. R., and Patterson, K. (2004). Natural selection: The impact of semantic impairment on lexical and object decision. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 21(2/3/4), 331-352.
Rogers, T. T. , Lambon Ralph, M. A., Hodges, J., and Patterson, K. (2003). Object recognition under semantic impairment: The effects of conceptual regularities on perceptual decisions. Language and Cognitive Processes, 18(5/6), 625-662.
McClelland, J. L., and Rogers, T. T. (2003). The Parallel Distributed Processing approach to semantic cognition. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 4 (4), 310-322.
Bozeat, S., Lambon Ralph, M. A., Graham, K. S., Patterson, K., Wikin, H., Rowland, J., Rogers, T. T., and Hodges, J. R. (2003) A duck with four legs: Investigating the structure of conceptual knowledge using picture drawing in semantic dementia. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 20 (1), 27-47.
Rogers , T. T. and Bulman-Fleming, M. B. (1998). Arousal mediates relations among medial paw preference, lateral paw preference, and spatial preferences in the mouse. Behavioural Brain Research, 93 (1-2), 51- 62.
Bulman-Fleming, M. B., Bryden, M. P., and Rogers, T. T. (1997). Mouse paw preference: Effects of variation in testing protocol. Behavioural Brain Research, 86 (1), 79-87.
Rogers, T. T. (in press). Connectionist models. To appear in The New Encyclopaedia of Neuroscience, L. Squire (Ed.), Amsterdam: Elsevier. [email for preprint]
Rogers, T. T. (in press). Computational models of semantic memory. The Cambridge Handbook of Computational Psychology. R. Sun (Ed.), Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK. [email for preprint]
Rogers, T. T. and J. L. McClelland (2005). A Parallel Distributed Processing approach to semantic cognition: Applications to conceptual development. To appear in D. Rakison and L. Gershkoff-Stowe (eds.), Building Object Categories in Developmental Time: Proceedings of the Carnegie Symposium on Cognition, vol. 32. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 335-387.
Rogers, T. T. and Plaut, D. C. (2002) Connectionist perspectives on category-specific deficits. In E. Forde and G. Humphreys (eds.), Category specificity in brain and mind. Brighton: Psychology Press, 251-289.
Rogers, T. T. (2002) Semantic Memory: Computational Models. In L. Nadel (ed. in chief), The Encyclopaedia of Cognitive Science, MacMillan Reference Ltd.
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